Selasa, 22 Mei 2012

Membuat Mesin Jet


        Hi! My name is Salvatore Aiello, I live in London and this site is a personal record of my ongoing project for the designing and construction of a DIY home built turbocharger based jet engine/gas turbine/turbojet and using this engine in a motorcycle type vehicle. I'm a motorcyclist so this type of vehicle was a natural choice for me! ;o) There are many personal websites ( see links below ) and a few groups devoted to building these engines  where the theory and practice of how these fiery beasts work is well documented. I've always been interested in engines and things mechanical and like many others have dreamed of building my own jet engine but always thought it to be an impossibly difficult task. It was only when I heard that someone had  built a jet engine based on an automotive turbocharger that set me off on an internet search for more information... 
        I belong to ( and moderate ) a Yahoo Group ( see Links below ) whose members are devoted to the building and often mounting of these home built jet engines into moving vehicles and who have been an invaluable source of information and support. I've been working on and off  my project for a good few years now and the design has gone through many changes.
        These days there are many off the shelf options in the form of model jet engines that you can buy that are light, efficient and with high thrust to weight ratios or there are even plans to build these yourself,  but these ready-to-run engines are relatively expensive and building them yourself  more technically challenging ( Here's an unusual use for a few of these engines! yves-rossy-jet-man ). With a turbocharger based engine most of the hard work is done, the only other major item is the addition of a suitable combustion chamber ( plus a few other bits and pieces..! ). Most of these items can be found in a scrap yard and can be picked up for next to nothing. Ebay is also a very good source for parts, in fact I've managed to find at least 95% of my parts this way! If you can use a welder, have access to basic tools  and don't mind getting your hands dirty then you too can own one of these beasties!
         There is no one definitive design of turbocharger  based engine that you can follow, there are as many different designs as there are engines that people have built. Having said that, there are general design guidelines that you will need to consider in order to get one of these engines to run.

   A word of warning if you are intending to embark upon this exciting but inherently dangerous hobby. These engines are not toys, if you play with fire without due caution you WILL get burned! Anyone deciding to go ahead does so at their own risk, I will not be held liable for any damage either to yourself, others or  to property as a result of using the information contained within this site.

How Do Jet Engine's Work?

        A jet engine works on the principle of Sir Isaac Newton's third law of physics, i.e. for every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. The action of forcing gases out from the rear of the jet engine results in a re-active force in the opposite direction, and is commonly referred to as 'thrust'. This thrust is measured in pounds force (lbf ), kilograms force (kgf ), or Newtons (N). Engines of this type are often referred to as 'Reaction Engines', a rocket engine being another example. Newton's third law and the action of a jet can be demonstrated in simple terms by inflating a balloon and releasing it, the escaping air propels the balloon in the opposite direction.
        Creating thrust takes energy. The energy required is obtained from burning fuels, whether it be in gas or liquid form such as propane, kerosine, diesel or even vegetable oils! This fuel is normally combined with pressurised air to increase the efficiency and power output for a given engine size. This fuel/air mixture is burned in some form of combustion chamber where the resulting hot gases expand creating an increase in pressure inside the combustion chamber. The expanding gases are then used to do useful work. One example of this process is what happens inside the cylinder of a car engine. Air and fuel are drawn into the cylinder by the downward movement of the piston, the piston then moves up and squeezes this mixture which is then ignited. The fuel burns creating a sudden sharp rise in pressure inside the cylinder. This pressure then forces the piston back down producing mechanical work. The piston then moves back up the cylinder to eject the burnt fuel ready for another cycle. This process is commonly referred to as the 'Suck, Squeeze, Bang, Blow' cycle! (SSBB).

Comparison of the Operation of a Typical Jet Engine
and a Four Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

         The way a basic Turbojet engine burns it's fuel is exactly the same as in a car engine, but instead of burning the fuel in discrete packets, the jet engine continuously sucks, squeezes, bangs and blows all at the same time! Also, instead of using the expanding gases to push on a piston, they are released through the turbine blades which takes some of the energy to drive the compressor, the rest being released to the atmosphere which results in 'Newtons' thrust described above. In a basic turbo jet, the air enters the front intake (suck) and is compressed by the compressor (squeeze), then forced into combustion chambers where fuel is sprayed into them and the mixture is ignited (bang). The gases which form expand rapidly, and are exhausted through the rear of the combustion chambers and out through the nozzle (blow) providing the forward thrust. Just before the gases enter the engine nozzle, they pass through a fan-like set of turbine blades  which rotates the engine shaft. This shaft, in turn, rotates the compressor, thereby bringing in a fresh supply of air through the intake. All of these processes are happening at the same time. Engine thrust may be increased by the addition of an afterburner section into which extra fuel is sprayed into the exhausting gases ( which contains surplus hot oxygen ) to give the added thrust.
    At this point you may be asking yourself, "what actually makes it work?". When we effectively create a continuous explosion in our combustion chambers, what's to stop that explosion exiting the wrong way out of the compressor as opposed to out of the turbine? What is the physical explanation involved that will drive our engine ( and for that matter ANY jet engine ) the right way? The short answer to this is turbine to compressor 'Mechanical advantage'. For a slightly longer answer, I shall endeavour to explain below what it is and how it's used in a jet engine.
         Lets start with an experiment. Imagine we have a typical jet engine like the one in the diagram above, that isn't running. We inject a quantity of fuel in to the combustion chamber, ignite it and create a single explosion. If we haven't over egged the pudding and the engine is still in one piece, some of the gases from the explosion will have exited out of the compressor intake ( not what we want ), but most of the gases will have exited out of the exhaust. As a result we find that our single explosion has given us a small kick of forward thrust, but additionally and crucially, has given the engine's compressor/shaft/turbine assembly a small rotational 'kick' in the direction it would have in normal operation. If our intention was to design and build a one-shot 'pulse' jet then we have succeeded, the compressor/shaft/turbine assembly's rotational 'kick' being a bit redundant from a design point of view and actually detrimental from an efficiency point of view, but comes in handy later on as we shall see! ;o)
        The reason the gases exit mostly out of the exhaust which is what we want for forward thrust and also gives us our small rotational 'kick', is exhaust turbine to intake compressor mechanical advantage. How it works is this: following our explosion, the gases try to go equally in opposite directions through the compressor and turbine wheels, and due to the specific orientation of their blades, also tries to rotate them in opposite directions. If the compressor and turbine wheels were exactly the same size and shape, then we would have the situation where the exhaust gases would exit from both ends equally,  generating equal forces in opposite directions resulting in no net thrust. Also, because the rotational forces acting on the compressor and turbine wheels  would be equal and opposite, and because they are both connected to the same shaft, the whole compressor/shaft/turbine assembly would remain stationary. But the compressor and turbine wheels are not the same. The turbine blades are generally at a 'steeper' angle than the compressor blades, i.e. their 'pitch' is greater, and the area through which the gases flow through the turbine is generally larger than the compressor. The result of this is that  the whole assembly is 'unbalanced' in terms of resistance to the explosion. What this means is that the gases will pass through the turbine more easily giving us our resultant net thrust in one direction, but equally importantly, because of the steeper blade angles of the turbine, the exiting gases give the turbine wheel more torque or 'turning force' in one direction than the compressor wheel's turning force in the opposite direction. The net result of these unbalanced torque's or turning forces is that the whole compressor/shaft/turbine assembly is given a rotational 'kick' in the direction that favours the turbine. This is the turbine to compressor mechanical advantage mentioned earlier that is employed in jet engines and is key to making them work! ;o)
        OK, so we made one explosion, got a short pulse of thrust and spun our compressor/shaft/turbine assembly a bit in the right direction. But hey, why not do this again, immediately following our first explosion with another explosion and then another, etc, in rapid succession, making the engine spin faster and faster? Well, we can do this but we have to wait a bit before we can create another explosion. Our first explosion used up the available oxygen in the combustion chamber and it needs to be refreshed. This is where our now free-wheeling/spinning ( as a result of our mechanical advantage ) compressor comes into play. As it spins, it pulls in fresh air from the outside and eventually replenishes the combustion chamber with a charge of fresh air/oxygen. We can now inject more fuel, create our second explosion and get a second 'kick' of thrust. If we time things right, we can get our second explosion to add to the already spinning compressor/shaft/turbine and make it spin faster than before.  We can repeat this process, creating our explosions more frequently as the compressor spins faster and faster, recharging the combustion chamber ever more quickly. Additionally, because of the ever increasing in-rush of air from the compressor, we find there is less and less tendency for our explosions to exit out of the compressor because of the ever increasing pressure barrier coming from that direction. Note also that so far our jet engine is still working discretely, i.e. it is still operating on the SSBB cycle as used in a car engine. Eventually though,  there will come a point when our compressor is spinning so fast that it recharges the combustion chamber almost instantaneously, the pressure barrier it creates as a result of the in-rush of air means that our explosions exit fully out through the turbine only, and finally, our explosions are so close together that we have left the discrete SSBB cycle behind and are now experiencing the continuous roar of a typical jet engine! ;o)
        Although it is possible in theory to start a jet engine with discrete explosions, it would not be a very practical way to do it but more importantly would more than likely be a very destructive process! Normally the compressor/shaft/turbine is spun up either electrically, or pneumatically to a speed that sees enough in-flow of air from the compressor to make a decent pressure barrier, at which point enough fuel is introduced and burned so that it can take over from the 'starter motor'. This is the point at which the engine can be said to be 'self-sustaining' or 'idling'.
        A bit of a long winded explanation but I hope this helps to give a clearer understanding of how things work! ;o) A slightly different and more mathematical approach ( although still employing the mechanical advantage principle ) can be found here courtesy J.S.Denker.

Using a Turbocharger for a Jet Engine

KKK-K26 Turbocharger

        A turbocharger is used on internal combustion engines to increase the amount of air and consequently the amount of fuel that can be introduced into the engines cylinders and as a result increases the amount of power that can be produced for a given engine size.

Cross-Section Through a Typical Turbocharger

        The turbocharger's compressor provides the pressurised air for the engines cylinders. The compressor wheel is driven by a turbine wheel via an interconnecting shaft. The turbine wheel is driven by the exhaust gases produced by the engine. The whole compressor/shaft/turbine rotating assembly is exactly the same setup as in a typical turbojet.

Flow Diagram for a Turbocharger in Normal Use
        So, fortunately for us, a turbocharger already has two of the three major the elements that we need to build a turbojet, i.e. a compressor section and turbine section. The only difference between the turbocharger and a real commercial turbojet are the designs of the compressor and turbine wheels. In a commercial turbojet the wheels are designed to work  'axially' which means that the gases flow through the wheels along their axes of rotation.
Commercial Engine with Axial Wheels and Gas Flow
        In a turbocharger, the wheels are designed to work 'radially' that is, the gases exit the compressor and enter  the turbine in a radial direction, i.e. at right angles to their axis of rotation, which is the reason for the 'snail shell'-like shape to the housings.  The reason for this is efficiency, radial compressors and turbines work more efficiently below a certain size, above this size axial compressors and turbines are used, but this is not an issue for us apart from one of design compactness.
Turbocharger with Radial Wheels and Gas Flow

      The third element that we need to build our jet engine, requires us to build some form of suitable combustion chamber.  A turbocharger, when bolted to an engine is almost behaving like a jet engine already, it provides compressed air to the engine's combustion chamber where fuel is burned, the resulting gases then being forced out of the chamber by the piston which spins the turbine wheel and hence driving the compressor. When we introduce a jet engine style combustion chamber we effectively replace the engine and it's cylinders for the burning of our fuel, turning the discrete 'suck, squeeze, bang, blow' cycle into a continuous one as in a real turbojet.  The  combustion chamber will essentially be a large can into which the fuel is sprayed and burned. The air from the turbocharger's compressor is fed in, fuel is added, burned and the resulting hot expanding gases exit the combustion chamber through a pipe connected to the inlet of the turbochargers turbine thereby completing the loop.  Combustion chambers have been constructed using a variety of basic materials, built up from tubular steel or from modified fire extinguishers using mild or sometimes stainless steel for durability.
         Because of the inherent design of the turbocharger ( radial inflow wheels as opposed to the more normal axial flow wheels ) and the fact that on most DIY jet engines we are using it 'as is', the combustion chamber needs to be constructed 'outside' of the turbocharger as a separate unit. This leads to the construction of a jet engine that is bulkier, heavier and far less efficient, thrust for  thrust, than their more streamlined commercial brethren ( both full-size and model jets ) but is the price we have to pay in order to reduce complexity and cost to achieve a real working jet.  

Getting Started

        Ok, so we know that we can use a turbocharger to build a jet engine, but how do we go about choosing the right turbo? What sort of thrust levels can we expect? How do I go about designing my combustion chamber? What other bits and pieces do we need to make it work such oil and fuel systems? Because of the numerous types of turbocharger out there and the varying levels of access to parts and materials  that builders encounter, but moreover the fact that 'There Is More Than One Way To Do It..',  there is no one definitive set of plans to go by. Instead, what is presented below are links to a set of guidelines ( 'Rules of Thumb' ) in Adobe Acrobat Reader format (.pdf) that have been an invaluable aid to myself and others to help get to grips with these problems and come up with working solutions. They were originally drawn up by Australian John Wallis a veteran DIY gas turbine builder and long time member of the  DIYGasturbines Yahoo group. The 'Rules of Thumb' are reproduced here with his permission. You can see examples of John's (Racketmotorman) projects on the DIYGasturbines group and on Nick Haddocks website ( see Links below ).
        The diagram below shows a typical layout of a DIY gas turbine and gives the names of the various parts ( click on diagram for a more detailed version ).

Naming Conventions

Abbreviations               - Refer to these if you are unsure of certain terms
Rule of Thumb N.o. 1   - Choosing a Turbo
Rule of Thumb N.o. 2   - Oil Requirements
Rule of Thumb N.o. 3   - Combustion Chambers
Rule of Thumb N.o. 4   - Fuel Requirements
Rule of Thumb N.o. 5   - Ignition
Rule of Thumb N.o. 6   - Starters
Rule of Thumb N.o. 7   - Jet Pipes and Nozzles
Rule of Thumb N.o. 8   - Compressor Flows
Rule of Thumb N.o. 9   - Thrust
Rule of Thumb N.o. 10 - Fuel Consumption
Rule of Thumb N.o. 11 - Freepower Turbines
Rule of Thumb N.o. 12 - Afterburners
Rule of Thumb N.o. 13 - Evaporators
Adobe Acrobat Reader for your particular operating system can be downloaded here.

Engine Designs

     The two main design decisions that need to be made are what shape the engine is going to take and the type of fuel that is to be used. The shape of the engine is mainly  determined by how the combustion chamber is attached to the turbo. The most efficient ( and common ) way is to have the combustion chamber attached radially to the turbocharger's axis, i.e. the output of the combustion chamber is attached directly to the input of the turbine scroll so that it feeds the turbine without any intervening pipe work. This results in the engine taking on an 'L' form ( without the jetpipe ) which is the most efficient, but not necessarily the most compact. Other arrangements that people have used are axially pointing forwards ( as in the diagram above ) or axially pointing backwards, transversely in an 'X' shape, as well as others. These latter forms need extra pipe work giving slightly reduced efficiency. Whichever shape you choose depends on what best suits the mounting of the engine and of course aesthetics! ;o)  My original engine design ( see 'Jet Single' below ) has the combustion chamber arranged axially with a 90 degree transfer pipe from the combustor to the turbine inlet. The reason I chose this form is because of an idea I had when I first started out on this project.
         Apart from the design's relative compactness, I wondered about the possibility of adding a second turbocharger at a later stage in the manner show in the pictures below ( Twin Jet ).  As time went on and I came to understand a bit better about how a jet likes this works I could think of less reasons as to why it wouldn't work in theory. I imagined this sort of design a bit like the inverse of Sir Frank Whittle's first engine ( see images below ), where instead there were multiple combustion chambers centred around a single compressor/turbine. The layout lends itself well to the addition of a second turbocharger with minimal extra work with a view to adding more thrust with a small increase in weight. I could simply replace the original small turbo with a larger unit, but larger turbo's are harder to come by, are more expensive and would have different operating characteristics which may require a combustion chamber redesign. Using one type of turbo means you can get to know it's operating characteristics and build on that knowledge. The idea is that the second turbocharger will share the combustion chamber with the first turbo.
        My reasoning behind the twin ( or multiple ) turbo jet is that from the combustion chamber's point of view it doesn't care where it's air comes from or where it's combustion products go to, it's job is to burn fuel as efficiently as possible and heat excess air. It is the turbo's job to deliver the required air, making use of the exhaust gases as efficiently as possible such that it can sustain it's function in providing compressed air, as well as leaving enough energy in the exhaust gases to do useful work. Having said that, there are obvious technical difficulties that will need to be addressed with a twin or multiple turbo setup such as starting, balancing gas flows, etc...
        For fuel I decided to go liquid and use Diesel. Propane gas is the first choice for many because it is clean burning, easy to ignite and doesn't require any auxiliary pump to deliver the fuel. The downside is that it is stored in heavy containers that have to be carted around which is more problematic if the engine is to be used in a vehicle, the propane is quickly used up resulting in short run times and is relatively expensive and more trouble to refill ( at least where I live! ). There is also the personal aspect in that, for me, working with gas I feel is inherently more risky and requires greater care. Using a liquid fuel requires the use of a pump and driving motor so is more complicated to set up initially, but the great advantage is that you can use almost any liquid fuel ( NOT petrol, very volatile! ). I decided to use Diesel because it is relatively safe to use ( you can put a blowtorch to a pool of diesel and it won't ignite, you have to atomise and/or heat it before it will light off ) and is  readily available at the local fuel station ( half the cost if 'Red' Diesel can be obtained that is used for off road vehicles and generators ).

Jet Single

My original engine design.

Twin Jet

Original Twin Design

Current Build

Radial Six

        Two variations of my dream machine! If the twin turbo jet goes to plan then I'll be on the hunt for more turbo's... Whittles original engine is shown below, the radial six is like an inverted form of this design.

This is an improved version of the original design above. The turbo's are angled backwards at 45 degrees to improve gas flow to and from the turbine sections. The exhausts combine in to a single jet pipe/afterburner.

Whittle's Engines

The Build

     There have been a number of phases in the development process so far. I chose to document progress in terms of general build phases as opposed to dating things in a diary like fashion which would have been inconvenient considering the rapidity with which changes have occurred.
    With all these design changes, at least one thing has remained constant, and that is the juxtaposition of the turbo(s) and combustion chamber as shown in the engine designs above.
    Below are links to progress in roughly chronological order.

Phase 1 - Beginnings...          
Phase 1 documents my first faltering steps, blind alleys, false starts, crude designs, naive assumptions and a rush to get things going spurred on by turbine fever...
Phase 2 - Better equipped... 
Phase 2 followed a period of rest, a step back and a more measured approach to things. I wanted to build something that worked first time and looked right. I still had a way to go and the design was constantly changing, resulting in new parts to find and re-making old parts, so was a constant two steps forward and a one step back process!
Phase 3 - New Ideas...
Having partially documented Phase 2, I've since changed my designs to incorporate a better oil/fuel system without the need for heavy batteries using a model aero engine, an idea for oil cooling using the fuel itself, an on-board starting device and my own design for an adjustable jet nozzle for easing the process of fine tuning for maximum thrust!
Phase 4 - Jet Engine ...
Having already done a fair bit of work on the Jet Single design, I have decided to go straight for the Twin Jet. One of the reasons for this was that in starting to make up the combustor to turbine transfer pipe for the single, I realised that it would be better to invest time in making the pipe(s) ready for the twin jet, as well as the other parts that were needed. The other reason was that I had an idea that would allow me to run just one of the turbo's leaving the second idle. This means I could have the benefits of learning to run a single and when I was ready to bring the second online, all the necessary components were in place to allow me to do so. It would take a bit longer to get something up and running but shorter in realising a running twin.
Phase 5 - Freepower!
Moving a vehicle using pure thrust is fine, but for faster acceleration and making more efficient use of the exhaust gases from a gas turbine requires the use of a freepower setup...
Phase 6 - Jet Cycle, a.k.a. ...
My original idea was to put a jet engine in a bicycle frame for lightness, but found that space would be too limited especially considering the space needed for a large enough fuel tank that would allow reasonably long runs without the need to re-fuel. Instead, I decided to build something  more robust and stable using parts from a variety of motorcycles, Mini Moto's and bicycles. Every project needs a name, but up until this point I hadn't really decided on one. On seeing the partially completed cycle with it's large bulging fuel tank a friend remarked that it looked something like a contraption from one of the 'Wallace and Gromit' animations...
Phase 7  - Electronics
Any vehicle needs devices to monitor the operating conditions of the various systems . A DIY jet powered vehicle is no exception. Sensors are needed to measure and display temperatures, pressures, speed, RPM, etc. These measurements can also be used to control other systems, e.g. switching on cooling fans, controlling start up procedures or shutting down the engine if critical conditions occur. At the very least temperature measurement of the hot exhaust gases impinging on the turbine wheel is essential to avoid meltdown and some form of RPM sensor for indicating the speed of the turbo without which over-speed can easily lead to a destructive scenario! The ideal solution would be to have some form of complete process control system. All of the desired measurements would be fed in to  a microcontroller type processing device or PC/laptop where display, logging and monitoring can be performed, start-up sequences can be programmed and decisions taken to avoid disastrous situations.  This is a huge project in itself so I am starting with the minimum requirements, an RPM sensor(s) and exhaust gas temperature measurement. 

DIY Jet Engine Links

Nick Haddock
Large library of images and video by people who have built  jet engines
and mounted them in a variety of moving vehicles, many of whom can be
 seen testing their vehicles at the former testing ground of the Yahoo!
DIYGasturbine  group UK branch. Check out Nick's MK3 twin turbo jet
 'JetGolfBuggy' and John Wallis's many and varied gas turbine projects.

Don Giandomenico
If you're into experimental gas turbine engineering of quality
and a prolific nature then Don Giandomenico's site is a must see!

Russ W. Moore
Comprehensive website showing that this man has fingers in lots of pies!
Check out the progress of Russ' jet powered mini sportbike.

Mark Nye
Mark Nye of Nye Thermodynamics. Lots of gas turbine related stuff,
personal projects, commercial gas turbines, and educational resources.

Gary Packham
Gary Packham and 'Turbitrac' his turbocharged afterburning tractor!

Larry Berg
Check out Larry Berg's website. A veritable smorgasbord  of links
to DIY gas turbine builder's sites, as well as his own turbine tricks of course...!

DIY Gas Turbines Group
Mailing list for DIY jet enthusiasts.
 Lots of information on hand and help from expert members.

Recent Group Messages
  • Unable to spool the turbocharger with a vaccum cleaner,what to do ?
  • Re: Cheap spark gap ignitor
  • Re: horsepower turbine
  • Re: horsepower turbine
  • Re: Cheap spark gap ignitor
  • Re: SJ10 Augmenter Mockup
  • Re: horsepower turbine
  • Re: horsepower turbine
  • Re: SJ10 Augmenter Mockup
  • Re: Cheap spark gap ignitor
  • Cheap spark gap ignitor
  • Re: SJ10 Augmenter Mockup
  • Re: SJ10 Augmenter Mockup
  • Re: anyone have info on this starter?
  • SJ10 Augmenter Mockup

  • ( If you'd like a link to your own DIY gas turbine related site then just contact me below )


    The Model Zone


    I have provided some Blender files of the 3D models
    I have used throughout the website. Click Here to access the models.
    The Blender software will allow you to view and manipulate the models
    and can be downloaded for free ( See the Resources section below ).



    Logo set for the DIYGasturbine group.
    Click on Logo below to view and download different versions


    Resources (free!)
    Below is a collection of links to completely free resources ( no trials, cripple free
    and no other rubbish strings attached! ) that I use everyday
    in my project and in the maintenance of this site.

    Blender (3D)

      Download Blender
    All 3D graphics on this site were created using Blender.
    Download available for all platforms.

    DraftSight (2D)

    DraftSight ( AutoCAD clone) is a professional-grade, open 2D CAD product for users who
    want a better way to create, edit and view DWG files. DraftSight is easy to use and is available
     for professional CAD users, students and educators to download and activate for free.

    ExpressPCB Circuit Design
    Great couple of programs to help you design and build those electronic circuits.


    Excellent alternative to the severely limited calculator provided by Windows.


    Very useful program to help you convert between lots of different units.


    Excellent  FTP program that I use to update this site. Simple, easy to use
    and free from the usual bells and whistles..! ;o)

    ScreenHunter 5

    Very useful utility for grabbing whole screens, windows or parts thereof.

    Open Office
    Use Alternative to Microsoft Office suite of programs. Reads all Microsoft Office files and incorporates
    useful facility for converting Microsoft Word documents (.doc ) to Adobe Reader format (.pdf)
     The project is primarily sponsored by Sun Microsystems, which is the primary
    contributor of code to the Project. Other major corporate contributors include Novell,
    RedHat, RedFlag CH2000, IBM, and Google.

    Adobe Acrobat Reader

    Download Adobe Reader for your particular operating system.

    Wolfram Alpha
    Wolfram|Alpha is the first step in an ambitious, long-term project to make all systematic knowledge immediately computable by anyone. Enter your question or calculation in the text box below and Wolfram|Alpha uses its built-in algorithms and a growing collection of data to compute the answer ( Press return or click on the '=' sign to compute ).

    2012 Hoax

    If you believe what the doomsayers are spouting about 2012,
     do yourself a favour and check this website out by clicking the logo.


    Please feel free to email me about my project or any comments or suggestions about the website.

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